Green Versus Brown Compost Materials

Composting in your garden is very easy to do, however, to achieve quick and optimal compost, it should be well balanced with green and brown waste materials.

What are green versus brown materials, and why should you care? Think of compost as a healthy meal for your soil life €“ those worms and microbes that do the actual work of turning your waste into dark, rich compost. Just like anybody or anything else, a proper diet is essential for growth and health. Humans can€™t live on only french fries (though that would be great!) €” in the same vein, composting microbes can€™t only live on grass clippings. They need both green and brown ingredients.

Brown is the carbon energy the compost microbes need to thrive. Without it, your pile of green kitchen scraps will become smelly and slimy. This is because your greens will decompose too quickly through the bacteria already in the materials, rapidly fermenting nitrogen into the rotten egg smell of ammonia.

You want enough brown materials for the good bacteria and microbes to have enough energy to multiply and slow down the release of nitrogen. The layering effect of compost is a natural way to do this.

If your compost has a rotten rather than rich, earthy smell, add some more brown materials to the mix. Stir it as well, as a lack of oxygen also contributes to unpleasant smells.

Nitrogen is the protein the munching microbes need to thrive. Too little nitrogen, and your pile will decay into compost a lot more slowly, though it eventually will. The microbes will be fewer and weaker, so it could take a year or two in a mainly brown compost pile to turn into rich compost. A well-balanced compost will be hot, due to all those microscopic bodies busily multiplying and feasting for you!

A number thrown around is 25 to 30 parts brown to 1 part green. This doesn€™t mean throwing in a massive amount of browns and only a tiny but of green €“ instead, it refers to carbon versus nitrogen, not the organic matter you throw in the compost. Everything is made up of carbon, greens and browns. Green just happens to have more nitrogen in it because €” well, the green color partly gives it away. Seriously, though, all living things are a mixture of carbon and nitrogen, and after death, the nitrogen is released, turning green grass and leaves brown. Coffee grounds and manure are good examples of nitrogen-rich but non-green products.

Equal amounts brown and green will achieve the proper ratio of 30:1. Well, close enough. Let€™s not make things overly complicated €“ a good rule of thumb is to add a bit more brown material than green.

Add some water, turn your compost every couple days, and viola, after a few weeks or months you will have a great source of soil conditioner and organic fertilizer for your garden and vegetable plants! The richer and more varied the compost diet, the healthier the environment for your microbes to thrive in.

[…] then started building the bin by creating layers of €œbrowns€ (carbon) and €œgreens€ (nitrogen). It€™s important to have a balance between these materials for the composting process to occur […]

[…] It€™s kind of alarming when you realize that you generate more brown waste than green waste (here is an explanation of what€™s €œgreen€ and what€™s €œbrown€ for the […]

I would like to use the evergreen spruce) needles that have fallen off for composting. Is that considered brown material (they are dry & brown) or is that considered off limits?

[…] a sink full of water for a bit for the worm€™s bedding. Per these directions, we also put some €œgreen€ compost in the bin on top of the bedding. Since we produce so much more green compost than the worms can […]

[…] Frank saw an opportunity to use some of our chippings with the gathered grass to ensure a good green/brown mix, which would ensure maximum quality compost for top dressing plants. Mark, Peter and James […]

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Organic Gardening Ebook

Let me take a wild guess, you’ve slaved for hours already over your dream of producing tasty, healthy organic food – but you you just haven’t had the right results;

If you answered YES to any of the above, I feel your pain! You see, I used to be exactly where you are. That’s why I put up this site: to help folks like yourself get the job done cheaply, fast and without headaches, every time, using my never-before published organic gardening tips!

When I started my first organic garden, almost 10 years ago, I thought I had it all figured out. 6 exhausting months later, the results were poor – I thought I had it all figured out, only to find that I’ve got it all WRONG. So I decided to find a better way.

For the past 6 years, I’ve spent thousands of hours sweating, testing and researching organic gardening techniques. In most cases I had to start from scratch, because most tips on the market left me with questions – not answers! No wonder gardening seemed so hard!

This e-book will teach you how to create and maintain your own fully functioning, self supporting, carbon neutral, organic garden that produces great results every time – GUARANTEED!

Save yourself hundreds, if not THOUSANDS, of dollars by becoming a healthy gardener, saving money by cutting out fertilizer and pesticides – and your entire grocery bill!

How to Master Organic Gardening is an easy to follow guide to quickly get you gardening without chemicals – even if you have never touched a plant in your life!

Hobbyists and professionals alike have benefited
greatly from my organic gardening tips. Just take a look at some of these
reviews, which continue to flow into my e-mail box…

“When I downloaded my copy of How to Master Organic Gardening, I wondered whether this would be another fluffy e-book written by someone who had no particular skill in writing or in gardening. It didn’t take long to see that this author team not only knows what they’re talking about, they provide thorough information and a variety of important resources. They also write clearly and explain everything thoroughly without talking down to the reader….

“Perhaps you’re an experienced gardener who is just now getting into organic methods. You’ll learn a lot from this book. Or maybe you’re a total beginner, essentially clueless about the meaning of such terms as compost, soil compaction, and brown rot. This book is also for you. If you’re already an expert organic gardener, you don’t need this book. But think about the people you know who could use a primer; this book is for them.”

“Bravo! I cannot tell you how refreshing it was to read an organic gardening book that was so simple, straightforward, and easy to follow. The whole book is logically laid out, each chapter builds well upon the next, leading a gardener at any level of experience to use this book as an effective reference tool. This How-To book should be kept handy near the potting bench!”

“This is such an excellent, inspiring and informative book – I genuinely, thoroughly enjoyed reading it. (My father spent hours in the garden and now I understand his fascination.) It is well presented and in a friendly way with lots of great, clear and useful diagrams. Then there are also many pictures showing clearly what is being talked about.

Everybody used to garden the natural, healthy way until the early to mid 20th century, with the rise of industrial farming and the mentality of “man’s triumph over nature.” We all now know how wrong and damaging this view is. Organic gardening is all about working with nature and realizing that the cycle of life can not be replished with the application of synthetic “weed and feed.” Like most things in life, “quick fix” solutions do not solve any problems in the long run – they make it worse. If you have applied chemicals to your lawn year after year, this is likely why you have to use more and more to achieve the same results. Your soil is near death, and can no longer support the grass above it.

You likely know that garden-fresh vegetables taste better than store-bought, and do you know why? Home-grown veggies taste better simply because they contain more nutrients. The quality of the soil is what makes your food.

Synthetic fertilizers do not add organic matter to the soil – instead, they mainly add nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium – nor do they replenish the hundreds of micro nutrients needed for well-rounded, nutrient-rich food. Not enough nutrients in the soil means that crops are more susceptible to disease and insects. Thus, large-scale use of pesticides are essential to keep our commercial food going.

The result? Lots of food, but most of it is saturated with pesticides and lacking in a lot of the micro-nutrients and antioxidants we need to stay healthy.

Do you love butterflies? Who doesn’t! If you’re going organic, a butterfly garden is a must! Not only will butterflies liven up your yard, they will bring hours of delight to you and your family. Watch in fascination as your resident larvae encase themselves in gorgous chysalids, to miraculously emerge as colorful, gorgeous butterflies!

This detailed, 33 page guidebook describes the butterfly lifecycle, how to prepare a space in your garden, types of plants to attract butterflies and their young, and fascinating facts about butterfly life. Comes with dozens of full color photographs of butterflies and visual guides on plants to attract them.

Learn how to properly plant, care for, harvest, prevent disease and save the seeds of such popular vegetables as tomatoes, beans, peas, lettuce, onions, spinach, corn, carrots, potatoes and many more!

If you are not satisfied with How to Master Organic Gardening, you have an entire year in which to return it for a full refund! I certainly understand that organic gardening takes time, so if you not satisfied with the results by the following year, I will gladly give you your money back!

This complete package of organic gardening guides usually go for at least $47 in stores, plus shipping and handling if you order online. However, if your order today you will receive “How to Master Organic Gardening”, and “All About Buttefly Gardening” and “Organic Vegetable Gardens: An Easy Reference Guide,” all for only $17!

With an entire year to decide if organic gardening is right for you, there is no risk! We want you to succeed, for going organic one person at a time is the best way to save our health and the health of the planet. Cut out the expense of fertilizer and pesticides, grow tastier and juicier vegetables, and learn how to make your garden healthy and in tune with the natural environment!

(Hint: Chapters 3 and 4 are all about soil and making compost, including types of compost bins, what to put in it, how to layer, and answers to common problems.)

(Hint: you have an entire army at your disposal! In Chapter 12, we give you a visual primer on the common types of “good” bugs, and from pages 75 to 77 we present a list of safe, home-made and time-tested insecticide recipes from such ingredients as chives, soap, lemon juice and hot peppers, among other common household ingredients.)

(Hint: by practicing organic gardening, your soil will retain nearly 200 pounds of water for every 100 pounds of soil. Convention gardening? Almost zero. Chapter 13 is all about organic lawn care.)

(Hint: on page 84 we give you a tested 3-year plan to eliminate 95% of the weeds in your lawn. While weeds will appear wherever there is exposed soil (such as in flower and vegetable gardens), you can teach your lawn to crowd out and ultimately kill most weeds. This is why grass is the preferred plant for open spaces.

(Hint: Chapter 14 is all about organic vegetable gardening. We delve into common organic practices such as intercropping, companion planting and organic fertilizer techniques to grow the best possible vegetables for your family and friends.

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Organic Fertilizer

The key to successful flowers and vegetables in your organic garden is healthy soil first, organic fertilizer second. In fact, the improvement of the soil is what organic gardening is all about. Experienced gardeners know that feeding the soil is what helps plants grow and thrive. Adding liquid organic fertilizer is another great method during the growing season.

All fertilizers contain trace elements of minerals, which plants need in small quantities. The three major nutrients are shown on all fertilizer packages (organic and chemical), often as three numbers, which are percentages of the total package. In order of these numbers, they are:

However, plants also need a variety of micronutrients in trace amounts that are just as essential to proper growth and production. Not just that, the soil itself needs to have good structure to hold these minerals, excellent water-retention abilities and pockets of oxygen. Synthetic fertilizer can not achieve this. Fortunately, orgamic materials do, and as an organic gardener, this is what you will be concentrating on.

Adding organic matter, usually through compost and composting manures, are the main sources of soil fertility. These organic materials provide food to earthworms, beneficial bacteria and micro-organisms in the soil. All these creatures, seen and unseen, break soil down into compounds and nutrients in the decay of this material, nutrients that can then be absorbed into the plants roots.

Organic matter also improves soil structure and texture, allowing the ground to better retain water and allow pockets of oxygen to exist. Both soil microbes and plant roots need oxygen to survive.

By adding organic matter once or a few times per year, you will not only create great soil that supports healthy plants, but you will also solve most of the problems experienced by conventional gardeners, such as disease, insect infestations and low vegetable yields.

Compost is the best all-purpose organic fertilizer out there, and can be used on all plants. Compost is generally not considered a fertilizer because it is used more to increase the bulk€ of your soil. However, it is a vital component in your garden because it increases the health and richness of your soil. Think of it as the construction material of your soil and the protein for the earthworms and microbes found in your soil. These organisms in turn unlock the minerals and nutrients found in the decayed organic material in the compost and surrounding soil.

A highly concentrated liquid brewed in water using a special blend of compost. Sprayed on plants and soil, compost tea has been shown to suppress disease, fight toxins, and increases nutrients available to the plants. Some gardeners say it makes vegetables taste even better.

Corn gluten meal has been shown to be a great pre-emergent natural herbicide, meaning it does not allow a weed seed to germinate. Studies show it does take a few seasons, with a 60% effectiveness rate after the first season, and over 90% after the third season. As a bonus, corn gluten meal is an excellent source of nitrogen for existing turf! Note that it should be used on existing lawns. Wait 4-6 weeks before seeding your lawn with new grass.

It is also a good idea to test your soil.€“ Weeds take over lawns mainly because the pH of the soil is not balanced, encouraging weeds that prefer acidic or alkaline soils. By knowing how to rebalance the soil, you encourage the strong growth of your lawn, crowding out existing weeds.

A special blend of compost is used in this mix, including humus (the final product of compost), worm castings (yes, nutrient-rich worm poop!), and calcium for root growth and minerals. Coir is added to keep the soil light and fluffy, allowing for long-term water retention.

You can, of course, mix organic potting yourself yourself. If you have ready-made compost, simply mix with coir or vermiculite and builder€™s sand to create a loose, fluffy soil with high water-retention and spaces for oxygen€“ a perfect combination for houseplants.

Using compost helps condition the soil in your flower beds, allowing it to better retain moisture and allowing roots to grow faster and grab essential nutrients. Special organic mixes are measured with the right mix of essential minerals based on the type of plant. Compost and natural meal additives also do the same thing. Two important meals include:

Nitrogen is what gives plants their green vibrancy, and is available in many different forms. Nitrogen is broken down into nitrates, which are water-soluable and absorbed through the roots. If you previously resorted to chemical fertilizers, be aware that most organic fertilizer is slow-release, as nature intended. This means your plants will not burst into leafy glory as quickly, but then, you place too much stress on the plant if you do.

Do not use fresh manure on your garden, as the nitrogen content is too high, and could burn your plants,€“ not to mention the smell and risk of pathogens. Blood meal is a great nitrogen additive, as is guano (usually bat or seagull.) Finally, green manure is the practice of growing nitrogen-producing ground cover, such as alfalfa or clover, then plowing them into the ground (or adding them to the compost), as a source of nitrogen.

, a natural plant growth hormone. Alfalfa meal contains millions of beneficial microbes, which upon contact with the soil will immediately convert soil ingredients into plant-available nutrients. In fact, many gardeners have reported their soil heating up due to the activity, so either dust it lightly on top of the soil (within and the heat might damage the roots) or, better yet, mix it with compost tea for an energy boost. Also, add to your compost pile.

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How To Grow Green Tea in Your Garden

When you buy tea in the store, you can’€™t be completely sure of the quality of its production and packaging. Was it grown fully organically? How far was it shipped before it arrived at your local store? Packaging waste is another concern for the eco-conscious tea-drinker. And let’€™s not forget the expense of buying tea at the store, an unnecessary expense in these strained economic times.

Growing your own tea is a rewarding project that can save you money, reduce waste and ensure that you’€™re getting the best organic tea. Even better, drinking the leaves of your very own green tea plant can help you to lose weight. Although growing your own tea takes some time and patience, it’€™s quite easy to do.

You could grow a green tea plant from seeds if you really wanted to, but it would take several years. Why wait longer than necessary to get your tea? A much simpler solution is to buy a green tea tree (or a few cuttings from a green tea tree) from a nursery. While you’€™re there, pick up some organic fertilizer, mulch and sandy soil. Then, once you’€™ve got your tree planted, the only thing left is to wait. Depending on how old it is when you begin, your tea tree could take up to three years to be ready for plucking.

Once your plant is ready, you can finally start harvesting your tea. If it helps to gauge when your tree is all grown up, you can look at photographs of matured tea trees. When you harvest, take the terminal three leaves, along with the terminal bud, and let them dry for a few hours. You should keep them in a dim place, away from direct sunlight.

Now that the leaves are dry, heat your oven to 250 degrees. Spread the leaves out on a baking sheet and dry them in the oven for about 10 minutes. You can also dry them on the stove-top by tossing them in a 500-degree skillet for about 15 minutes. Let the leaves cool, then place them in an airtight container. To help them last as long as possible, store the container of dried tea leaves in a cool, dark cupboard.

Drinking your homegrown green tea can help you reach your weight-loss goals. In many reviews of weight loss diets, those programs that encourage dieters to consume green tea are considered best. Its chemical compounds, known as catechins, boost your metabolism and help you burn fat.

Your body requires a certain number of calories just to keep you alive. This is known as your basal metabolic rate, or BMR, and you’€™d burn these calories even if you sat still all day long. The catechins in green tea boost your BMR, so you burn more calories throughout the day.

Tea also affects your body’€™s ability to create and store fat. Fat cells are created from other cells, which are not able to store fat. Green tea prevents the body from creating and storing as much fat by preventing fat cells from developing. It could also affect your digestive system so that it doesn’€™t absorb as much of the fats you take in at mealtime.

Tea drinkers have been shown in studies to lose more fat than people who don’€™t drink tea. Long-term tea drinking can help you lose weight the safe and natural way. Your homegrown green tea is a truly natural and organic diet aid that will give you no unwanted effects.

Matt Papa is a medical researcher with a personal interest in organic foods and healthy eating. In his website he offers Medifast discount coupons, a weight loss program endorsed by medical doctors, and a Nutrisystem diet promotion discount.

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Garden pests, weeds, and disease solutions

Using pesticides and herbicides need not be synonymous with toxic chemicals that harm our health and our gardens. There are many natural techniques, home-made recipes and commercial organic sprays that are effective without harming the surrounding environment.

The problem with pesticide sprays, besides introducing yet more chemicals into our system, is they often kill the ‘€œgood’€ insects that would otherwise help us combat problem pests. The spray that kills aphids could also kill dragonflies, butterflies and honeybees. In fact, 95% of all insects in your garden are either harmless or actually help your plants. With that in mind, spot-treating is much better than going over your entire garden with a spray.

If your home needs serious pest treatment and you would like to stay away from pesticides, you can learn how to control termites along with other general tips on keeping insect populations low.

As organic gardeners, we need to find natural and safe products to keep the bugs away and control weeds from messing up our gardens. Fortunately, they are available, and they are often already stocked in your kitchen! (See a list of home-made recipes.) Commercial products are also becoming increasingly available, all made of organic ingredients that are safe for your health and your garden.

Broad-spectrum insecticide soap mixed with pyrethrin, an extract of the pyrethrum flower, or chrysanthemum. Completely safe to all mammals, though it can harm fish. Spot-treat directly against aphids, whitefly, mites, and many other pests.

Great for indoor use, and even around food! (That doesn’€™t mean you should try it, it is an insecticide, after all.) Orange Guard’€™s active ingredient is d-Limonine, which is steam-distilled orange peel oil. Insects absolutely hate it, such as cockroaches, ants, fleas, locusts and weevils.

Garlic wards off vampires, and it also repels insects like aphids, and even prevents the spread of certain diseases! In fact, it is a great all-purpose pesticide for your garden. Plant edible garlic between rows of vegetables or roses to repel aphids and other insects. Use garlic powder mixed with water to use as a spray on plants careful though, too much will harm them. Keep it to one spray. Commercial versions are often safer and more effective, as they have been extensively tested.

Many people can’€™t stand hot peppers, but insects absolutely loathe them! Keep some bugs out of your garden with a small amount of pepper juice or pepper seeds and water, then lightly coat your plants.

If the insect problem isn’€™t too bad or out of control, you could just wait for the cavalry. If your garden has been broad-spectrum pesticide-free for a few months, predatory insects will find the infestation and lay their eggs next to this valuable food source. Yum yum, aphid stew!

Made of natural citrus oil (d-Limonine) and Castor oil, this non-selective herbicide eliminates broadleaf, crab grass and other unwanted weeds naturally and quickly. It works by stripping away the plant’€™s waxy cuticle, dehydrating it. Annuals are killed, perennials may need a few applications. Completely safe for children, animals, and the water supply.

Rose RX is made from neem oil, a vegetable oil of an evergreen tree in the Indian subcontinent. In India it has been traditionally used in cosmetics, and is a herbal medicine against skin ailments. Recently is has been proven effective against aphids and mealy bugs, does not harm beneficial insects like ladybugs and honeybees, and controls fungus and black-spot, and eliminates powdery mildew. Because of this, it is great for roses, and can be used on all other plants, fruits and vegetables, right up to the day of harvest.

This organic fungicide is specially prepared for use with apples, beans, blackberries, raspberries, cherries, citrus, grapes and more. Use against such pests and diseases as rust, thrips, scale, two spotted mite, powdery mildew, leaf spot, and scab. Apply with a sprayer, using 1 3 tablespoons per gallon of water. Repeat every 7 to 10 days.

Organic gardening weed control involves the long-term planning of encouraging your plants to crowd them out, and keeping your grass healthy and thick so weed seeds can’€™t develop. Just like the plants in your garden, weeds (that is, ‘€œany plant that shouldn’€™t be there’€œ) need air and sunlight to flourish, so preventing them from growing by covering the soil with newspaper, mulch, bark, stone and, of course, your big, healthy, bushy plants will block them from growing and spreading.

For weed seeds, such as dandelions, spread corn gluten meal over your lawn to prevent seeds from germinating. Corn gluten meal is a natural byproduct of corn starch, and is used in animal feed, taco shells and chips, and pet foods. As a bonus, it is a great source of nitrogen fertilizer. It does not harm existing plants, only seeds, so spread liberally in your flower gardens, but not in your lawn if you are reseeding. Apply in early spring, and then reseed your lawn six weeks later when the corn gluten meal has broken down.

Tests show corn gluten meal reduces crabgrass by 86% the first year and 98% the second year, using proper applications in the spring and fall. In a 4 year test, dandelion infestation on a test plot was reduced by 100%. (University of Wisconsin)

Vinegar, garlic and other oils have long been a weed control method. What they do is burn the leaves, quickly browning them. However, unless the weed is very young, it does not kill the roots. That means that in a week or two, the weed will say ‘€œHello, I’€™m baaaack!’€, taunting you once again. Hand weeding is easier.

That being said, stronger (11% acetic acid or higher) vinegar is much more powerful against weeds, including the roots. Regular commercial vinegar is around 5%, so this will only burn the leaves of the weeds. Stronger vinegar solutions will be sold as a herbicide, and may be found at some gardening centers and online. Be aware that strong vinegar is dangerous, so handle with care and definitely do not get any in your eyes!

Mulching is by far my preferred method of weed control. Mulch not only blocks weeds from growing, it is a common and effective practice of naturally fertilizing your lawn. Natural mulch includes grass clippings, slightly decomposed wood chips (fresh wood chips actually draw nitrogen from the soil), pine bark, straw and even coffee grounds.

You can, of course, use non-organic soil coverings to prevent weed growth, such as plastic sheets and rubber mulch from recycled tires (hey, at least it’€™s putting trash to work!), or decorate rocks and gravel, but none of these decompose and add nutrients to the soil.

Controlling plant disease involves similar long-term planning. Diseases include root-rot, black spot, powdery mildew and bacteria such as rusts. The best preventative measure? Keep everything clean! It may seem obvious, but plant disease can only spread if it is given the chance. If fungi and bacteria spores are not given the chance to thrive at the expense of your plants, you will not have a problem. Here are some practices to follow in your day-to-day gardening:

Fortunately, there are many natural products that will combat fungus and molds. Here are a few to try, depending on the type of problem you are having:

Many destructive fungi live in the soil and attack the roots, so why not have your plants ‘€œinoculated’€ by introducing a beneficial fungus instead? These organisms are naturally occurring in rich, healthy soil, and will bind to your plant’€™s roots anyway, out-competing bad fungus. Sprinkle some of this in the root ball or in the planting hole before transplanting.

Copper compounds have been used for a long time to control a wide variety of diseases. They attack the germination of spores, so they help prevent further spread of the disease. A warning, though copper products, such as copper sulfate, is toxic to humans, mammals and aquatic species, so care must be taken. As with all pesticides (which are, after all, poisons, synthetic or organic), must be treated with care. Always follow the directions on the label!

Sulfur has been used since the Greeks and Romans, and controls the spread of disease such as black spot and powdery mildew. Like copper, it inhibits the growth of new spores. It also repels spider mites and thrips, but it is also toxic to some beneficial insects, so only spot-treat plants. Sulfur is also used to reduce the pH of soil.

Used to combat fungi that attacks plants, such as mildew. Combine 2 tablespoons of baking soda, 1 gallon of water, and 1 teaspoon of vegetable oil. Mix thoroughly and place in a spay bottle. Spray on contact. Not very effective against black spot.

All oils have the potential to burn plants, so use sparingly. That being said, insects hate vegetable-based oils, and olive and tea tree oil prevents and actively combats fungus on leaves. Combine 2 tablespoons of tea tree oil with two cups of water. Mix well and place in a spray bottle. Spray on contact. Also works great as an antiseptic and air freshener (though very strong-smelling.) We use it in our child’€™s diaper pail to neutralize smells.

Soaps
Like oil, use soap sparingly. Soaps are effective on young weeds because it strips the waxy layer off the leaves, drying them out. (A similar process makes insecticide soaps effective as well.) However, for the same reason, they could harm your existing plants as well. A small portion of liquid or tea tree oil soap, mixed with lots of water and spray, is an effective fungicide and insecticide.

quickly clean up fallen leaves, carefully snip off diseases areas of the affected plant. Place these straight in the garbage do not place them in your compost bin, as they can then spread and affect surrounding compost materials

Diseases are usually plant-specific. One type of fungus will only attack one type of plant. With that in mind, if you do not care about the uniform look of a garden, try planting similar plants in different areas. For instance, if you have two or more rose bushes, do not plant them together. That way, if one becomes infected, it likely will not spread to another one, because there will be a different species of plant in the way (such as garlic chives, which will actually protect your roses from many insects and diseases in the first place!)

Another obvious point, but if your soil is rich and healthy, your plants will be strong and vibrant, and thus able to ward off a smaller number of fungi and bacteria spores in the air.

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